Practical Grammar of Polish Language with the Elements of the Contrastive Grammar

Practical Grammar of Polish Language with the Elements of the Contrastive Grammar

(by Jolanta Tambor, Magdalena Pastuch, Aleksandra Janowska, Piotr Żmigrodzki, Małgorzata Smereczniak)

During the studies the students gain knowledge in the field of practical grammar that is essential to teach Polish as a foreign language. The aim of the classes is to make the students sensitive to the uniqueness of Polish language with reference to other language systems. Subject matters and the way of presenting language problems comprise generally in the field of descriptive grammar. There are, however, problems that are considered from the perspective of comparative linguistics or in the justified cases from the perspective of historic linguistic as well. Those additional points of view are often essential for the teacher – practitioner.
The fundamental method used during the course is the analysis of linguistic material leading to form (or review) the practical rules of creating various language forms. Grammatical forms are analysed not only by paying attention to their structure but also to the functions they perform during the process of communication. Each time, the manner and aim of presenting particular piece of grammar material in the coursebooks used to teach Polish language as a foreign is taken into consideration.


  • morfonology – vowels’ and consonants’ alternations in Polish language
  • inflectional categories in Polish language: gender (natural, grammatical, declensional), number, case, tense, mood, aspect, person, depreciation
    parts of speech, criteria of division into particular parts of speech: semantic, morphological, syntactic; declension and conjugation
  • nouns: semi- and multi-functional endings, parallel endings (co-functional, common-functional); criteria of selection of parallel endings: phonetic, semantic, customary; indicating inflectional peculiarity
  • adjectives: 5 cases; parallel endings, comparative and superlative forms: descriptive and synthetic, relative and absolute;
  • pronouns: deictic and substitution; stress and it depends on that if they come after the preposition or not
  • numerals: description and syntax
  • verbs: two verb stems, simple, agglutinative and complex forms; the problem of participles and verbal nouns


  • indicating inflectional categories in the sentence, stem and ending, stem alternations, case government (German: Rektion)
  • syncretism of endings
  • criteria for choosing parallel endings for the nouns
  • suppletive forms; peculiarity in nouns’ and adjectives’ declension
  • division of verbs into conjugations
  • verb stems, verb forms based on the present tense stem and past tense stem
  • complex forms of verbs, complex future tense, passive voice, several indicative forms
  • aspect: distinguishing and creating, simple future tense and complex future tense, present tense in comparison to simple future
  • participles and their semantic and syntactic functions
  • impersonal forms and impersonal constructions
  • ending and flectives in agglutinative forms
  • declension and syntactic properties of numerals
  • pronouns: long and short forms, types of pronouns, their functions and declension

Basic literature:

Bańko M., Wykłady z polskiej fleksji, Warszawa 2002.
Gramatyka współczesnego języka polskiego. Morfologia, red. R. Grzegorczykowa, R. Laskowski, H. Wróbel, Warszawa 1998.
Kaleta Z., Gramatyka języka polskiego, Kraków 1995.
Kita M., Wybieram gramatykę, t. 1, Katowice 1998.
Klemensiewicz Z., Podstawowe wiadomości z gramatyki języka polskiego. Warszawa (wydanie dowolne).
Krawczuk A., Gramatyka języka polskiego. Morfologia, Lwów 2007.
Nagórko A., Gramatyka języka polskiego, Warszawa (wydanie dowolne).
Tambor J., Język polski. Charakterystyka, w: Kultura polska. Silva rerum, red. R. Cudak, J. Tambor, Katowice 2002.
Tambor J., Po co są końcówki równoległe?, w: Sztuka czy rzemiosło? Nauczyć Polski i polskiego, red. A. Achtelik, J. Tambor, Katowice 2007.
Wróbel H., Gramatyka języka polskiego, Kraków (wydanie dowolne)


  • the elements of morphology; word division into morphemes; the need of such ability when teaching foreigners; word formation in comparison to inflection; the place of word formation in language system
  • basic knowledge concerning word formation; morphological division; morphological categories; type of derivation (affix, paradigmatic, alternation, prosodic); types of formants, functions of formants, productivity, categories of derivation, meanings of the formants
  • the problems of nominal derivation: nominal formants, morphological categories of Polish nouns, categorial values of nominal formants, compound nouns
  • the problems of verbal derivation; prefix derivation, meaning of verbal prefixes
  • word formation issues present in the coursebooks used to teach Polish as a foreign language


  • the borderline between word formation and syntax and word formation and vocabulary
  • morphological paraphrasing; division into morphological stem and formants
  • meaning of the formants; ambiguity of formants, formants’ homonymy
  • morphology of nouns; basic word formation categories and their formal interpretation
  • morphology of adjectives and adverbs; co-basic adjectival derivats
  • morphology of verbs (paying particular attention to verbal derivation), meaning of verb prefixes; pure aspectual pairs
  • morphology of compounds

Basic literature:

Gramatyka współczesnego języka polskiego. Morfologia, red. H. Wróbel, R. Grzegorczykowa, R. Laskowski, Warszawa 1998.
Grzegorczykowa R., Zarys słowotwórstwa polskiego, Warszawa (dowolne wydanie)
Janowska A., O swoistości derywacji na tle innych sposobów nominacji, w: Sztuka czy rzemiosło? Nauczyć Polski i polskiego, red. A. Achtelik, J. Tambor, Katowice 2007.
Nagórko A., Zarys gramatyki języka polskiego (ze słowotwórstwem), Warszawa 1998.
Pastuchowa M., O słowotwórstwie z perspektywy leksykalnej, w: Sztuka czy rzemiosło? Nauczyć Polski i polskiego, red. A. Achtelik, J. Tambor, Katowice 2007.


  • basic types of lexical categories in sentence, syntagm and co-ordinating syntagm
  • notion of accommodation and connotation; accommodation relations in sentences;
  • simple sentence and complex sentence
  • relations in complex sentence; types of clauses: subordinate and coordinate
  • ways of linking sentences


  • syntactic relations within simple sentence
  • sentence patterns in Polish language
  • types of subordinate and coordinate clauses (grammatical and semantic relations)
  • syntactic constructions with prepositions and adjectives, syntax of nominal groups

Basic literature:

Klemensiewicz Z: Zarys składni polskiej, Warszawa 1953 i wyd. nast.
Mędak S., Praktyczny słownik łączliwości składniowej czasowników polskich, Kraków 2005.
Saloni Z., Świdziński M., Składnia współczesnego języka polskiego, Warszawa 1998 (rozdz. I-X).
Słownik syntaktyczno-generatywny czasowników polskich, red. K. Polański, t. 1-5, Wrocław-Kraków 1980-1992.
Żmigrodzki P., Związki między składnikami w zdaniu polskim, w: Sztuka czy rzemiosło? Nauczyć Polski i polskiego, red. A. Achtelik, J. Tambor, Katowice 2007.